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Supplementary Figure Legend from Intracerebral CpG Immunotherapy with Carbon Nanotubes Abrogates Growth of Subcutaneous Melanomas in Mice

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posted on 2023-03-31, 17:14 authored by Haitao Fan, Ian Zhang, Xuebo Chen, Leying Zhang, Huaqing Wang, Anna Da Fonseca, Edwin R. Manuel, Don J. Diamond, Andrew Raubitschek, Behnam Badie

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Purpose: Recently, we showed that intratumoral delivery of low-dose, immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides conjugated with carbon nanotubes (CNT-CpG) was more effective than free CpG and not only eradicated intracranial (i.c.) gliomas but also induced antitumor immunity that protected mice from subsequent i.c. or systemic tumor rechallenge. Here, we examined whether the same “intracerebral immunotherapy” strategy could be applied to the treatment of metastatic brain tumors.Experimental Design: Mice with both i.c. and s.c. melanomas were injected intratumorally with CNT-CpG into either location. Antitumor responses were assessed by flow cytometry, bioluminescent imaging, and animal survival.Results: When given s.c., CNT-CpG response was mostly local, and it only modestly inhibited the growth of i.c. melanomas. However, i.c. CNT-CpG abrogated the growth of not only brain but also s.c. tumors. Furthermore, compared with s.c. injections, i.c. CNT-CpG elicited a stronger inflammatory response that resulted in more potent antitumor cytotoxicity and improved in vivo trafficking of effector cells into both i.c. and s.c. tumors. To investigate factors that accounted for these observations, CNT-CpG biodistribution and cellular inflammatory responses were examined in both tumor locations. Intracranial melanomas retained the CNT-CpG particles longer and were infiltrated by Toll-like receptor (TLR-9)–positive microglia. In contrast, myeloid-derived suppressive cells were more abundant in s.c. tumors. Although depletion of these cells before s.c. CNT-CpG therapy enhanced its cytotoxic responses, antitumor responses to brain melanomas were unchanged.Conclusions: These findings suggest that intracerebral CNT-CpG immunotherapy is more effective than systemic therapy in generating antitumor responses that target both brain and systemic melanomas. Clin Cancer Res; 18(20); 5628–38. ©2012 AACR.

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