American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure 8 from Autophagy Inhibition–induced Cytosolic DNA Sensing Combined with Differentiation Therapy Induces Irreversible Myeloid Differentiation in Leukemia Cells

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posted on 2024-03-20, 14:20 authored by Tomohisa Baba, Utano Tomaru, Atsushi Hirao, Naofumi Mukaida, Yoshikazu Johmura

Fig. S8 and its legend

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MEXT | Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence indicates that various oncogenic mutations interfere with normal myeloid differentiation of leukemogenic cells during the early process of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development. Differentiation therapy is a therapeutic strategy capable of terminating leukemic expansion by reactivating the differentiation potential; however, the plasticity and instability of leukemia cells counteract the establishment of treatments aimed at irreversibly inducing and maintaining their differentiation states. On the basis of our previous observation that autophagy inhibitor treatment induces the accumulation of cytosolic DNA and activation of cytosolic DNA-sensor signaling selectively in leukemia cells, we herein examined the synergistic effect of cytosolic DNA-sensor signaling activation with conventional differentiation therapy on AML. The combined treatment succeeded in inducing irreversible differentiation in AML cell lines. Mechanistically, cytosolic DNA was sensed by absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), a cytosolic DNA sensor. Activation of the AIM2 inflammasome resulted in the accumulation of p21 through the inhibition of its proteasomal degradation, thereby facilitating the myeloid differentiation. Importantly, the combined therapy dramatically reduced the total leukemia cell counts and proportion of blast cells in the spleens of AML mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that the autophagy inhibition-cytosolic DNA-sensor signaling axis can potentiate AML differentiation therapy. Clinical effects on AML therapy are closely associated with reactivating the normal myeloid differentiation potential in leukemia cells. This study shows that autophagosome formation inhibitors activate the cytosolic DNA-sensor signaling, thereby augmenting conventional differentiation therapy to induce irreversible differentiation and cell growth arrest in several types of AML cell lines.