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Supplementary Figure 7 from Ultra-Deep Sequencing Reveals the Mutational Landscape of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-11-15, 14:40 authored by Felicia Gomez, Bryan Fisk, Joshua F. McMichael, Matthew Mosior, Jennifer A. Foltz, Zachary L. Skidmore, Eric J. Duncavage, Christopher A. Miller, Haley Abel, Yi-Shan Li, David A. Russler-Germain, Kilannin Krysiak, Marcus P. Watkins, Cody A. Ramirez, Alina Schmidt, Fernanda Martins Rodrigues, Lee Trani, Ajay Khanna, Julia A. Wagner, Robert S. Fulton, Catrina C. Fronick, Michelle D. O'Laughlin, Timothy Schappe, Amanda F. Cashen, Neha Mehta-Shah, Brad S. Kahl, Jason Walker, Nancy L. Bartlett, Malachi Griffith, Todd A. Fehniger, Obi L. Griffith

figure 7Relationship between median Tumor VAF and Total Variant Count by Sample

Funding

HHS | NIH | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)

HHS | NIH | National Cancer Institute (NCI)

V Foundation for Cancer Research (VFCR)

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

The malignant Hodgkin and Reed Sternberg (HRS) cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) are scarce in affected lymph nodes, creating a challenge to detect driver somatic mutations. As an alternative to cell purification techniques, we hypothesized that ultra-deep exome sequencing would allow genomic study of HRS cells, thereby streamlining analysis and avoiding technical pitfalls. To test this, 31 cHL tumor/normal pairs were exome sequenced to approximately 1,000× median depth of coverage. An orthogonal error-corrected sequencing approach verified >95% of the discovered mutations. We identified mutations in genes novel to cHL including: CDH5 and PCDH7, novel stop gain mutations in IL4R, and a novel pattern of recurrent mutations in pathways regulating Hippo signaling. As a further application of our exome sequencing, we attempted to identify expressed somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNV) in single-nuclei RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) data generated from a patient in our cohort. Our snRNA analysis identified a clear cluster of cells containing a somatic SNV identified in our deep exome data. This cluster has differentially expressed genes that are consistent with genes known to be dysregulated in HRS cells (e.g., PIM1 and PIM3). The cluster also contains cells with an expanded B-cell clonotype further supporting a malignant phenotype. This study provides proof-of-principle that ultra-deep exome sequencing can be utilized to identify recurrent mutations in HRS cells and demonstrates the feasibility of snRNA-seq in the context of cHL. These studies provide the foundation for the further analysis of genomic variants in large cohorts of patients with cHL. Our data demonstrate the utility of ultra-deep exome sequencing in uncovering somatic variants in Hodgkin lymphoma, creating new opportunities to define the genes that are recurrently mutated in this disease. We also show for the first time the successful application of snRNA-seq in Hodgkin lymphoma and describe the expression profile of a putative cluster of HRS cells in a single patient.