Supplementary Figure 6 from RasGRP3 Contributes to Formation and Maintenance of the Prostate Cancer Phenotype
ARTICLE ABSTRACTRasGRP3 mediates the activation of the Ras signaling pathway that is present in many human cancers. Here, we explored the involvement of RasGRP3 in the formation and maintenance of the prostate cancer phenotype. RasGRP3 expression was elevated in multiple human prostate tumor tissue samples and in the human androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU 145 compared with the androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Downregulation of endogenous RasGRP3 in PC-3 and DU 145 cells reduced Ras-GTP formation, inhibited cell proliferation, impeded cell migration, and induced apoptosis. Anchorage-independent growth of the PC-3 cells and tumor formation in mouse xenografts of both cell lines were likewise inhibited. Inhibition of RasGRP3 expression reduced AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and sensitized the cells to killing by carboplatin. Conversely, exogenous RasGRP3 elevated Ras-GTP, stimulated proliferation, and provided resistance to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate–induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. RasGRP3-overexpressing LNCaP cells displayed a markedly enhanced rate of xenograft tumor formation in both male and female mice compared with the parental line. Suppression of RasGRP3 expression in these cells inhibited downstream RasGRP3 responses, caused the cells to resume the LNCaP morphology, and suppressed growth, confirming the functional role of RasGRP3 in the altered behavior of these cells. We conclude that RasGRP3 contributes to the malignant phenotype of the prostate cancer cells and may constitute a novel therapeutic target for human prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 70(20); 7905–17. ©2010 AACR.