American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure 6 from Helicase-Driven Activation of NFκB-COX2 Pathway Mediates the Immunosuppressive Component of dsRNA-Driven Inflammation in the Human Tumor Microenvironment

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posted on 2023-03-31, 01:45 authored by Marie-Nicole Theodoraki, Saigopalakrishna Yerneni, Saumendra N. Sarkar, Brian Orr, Ravikumar Muthuswamy, Jamie Voyten, Francesmary Modugno, Weijian Jiang, Melissa Grimm, Per H. Basse, David L. Bartlett, Robert P. Edwards, Pawel Kalinski

The model: Molecular separation of pro-inflammatory and suppressive pathways of dsRNA signaling in cancer TME.

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NIH/NCI

NIH/NIAID

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Rustum Family Foundation

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Presence of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTL) in tumor microenvironments (TME) is critical for the effectiveness of immune therapies and patients' outcome, whereas regulatory T(reg) cells promote cancer progression. Immune adjuvants, including double-stranded (ds)RNAs, which signal via Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) and helicase (RIG-I/MDA5) pathways, all induce intratumoral production of CTL-attractants, but also Treg attractants and suppressive factors, raising the question of whether induction of these opposing groups of immune mediators can be separated. Here, we use human tumor explant cultures and cell culture models to show that the (ds) RNA Sendai Virus (SeV), poly-I:C, and rintatolimod (poly-I:C12U) all activate the TLR3 pathway involving TRAF3 and IRF3, and induce IFNα, ISG-60, and CXCL10 to promote CTL chemotaxis to ex vivo–treated tumors. However, in contrast with SeV and poly I:C, rintatolimod did not activate the MAVS/helicase pathway, thus avoiding NFκB– and TNFα-dependent induction of COX2, COX2/PGE2-dependent induction of IDO, IL10, CCL22, and CXCL12, and eliminating Treg attraction. Induction of CTL-attractants by either poly I:C or rintatolimod was further enhanced by exogenous IFNα (enhancer of TLR3 expression), whereas COX2 inhibition enhanced the response to poly-I:C only. Our data identify the helicase/NFκB/TNFα/COX2 axis as the key suppressive pathway of dsRNA signaling in human TME and suggest that selective targeting of TLR3 or elimination of NFκB/TNFα/COX2-driven suppression may allow for selective enhancement of type-1 immunity.Significance: This study characterizes two different poly-I:C-induced signaling pathways in their induction of immunostimulatory and suppressive factors and suggests improved ways to reprogram the TME to enhance the antitumor efficacy of immunotherapies. Cancer Res; 78(15); 4292–302. ©2018 AACR.

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