ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: Radiotherapy modifies the tumor microenvironment and causes the release of tumor antigens, which can enhance the effect of immunotherapy. L19 targets the extra domain B (ED-B) of fibronectin, a marker for tumor neoangiogenesis, and can be used as immunocytokine when coupled to IL2. We hypothesize that radiotherapy in combination with L19-IL2 provides an enhanced antitumor effect, which is dependent on ED-B expression.Experimental Design: Mice were injected with syngeneic C51 colon carcinoma, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), or 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. Tumor growth delay, underlying immunologic parameters, and treatment toxicity were evaluated after single-dose local tumor irradiation and systemic administration of L19-IL2 or equimolar controls.Results: ED-B expression was high, intermediate, and low for C51, LLC, and 4T1, respectively. The combination therapy showed (i) a long-lasting synergistic effect for the C51 model with 75% of tumors being cured, (ii) an additive effect for the LLC model, and (iii) no effect for the 4T1 model. The combination treatment resulted in a significantly increased cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cell population for both C51 and LLC. Depletion of CD8+ T cells abolished the benefit of the combination therapy.Conclusions: These data provide the first evidence for an increased therapeutic potential by combining radiotherapy with L19-IL2 in ED-B–positive tumors. This new opportunity in cancer treatment will be investigated in a phase I clinical study for patients with an oligometastatic solid tumor (NCT02086721). An animation summarizing our results is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xHbwQuCTkRc. Clin Cancer Res; 21(5); 1151–60. ©2014 AACR.