Additional data for Figure 2B, showing representative tumor growth volumes, for review and publication
ARTICLE ABSTRACTExtracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) is a cancer immunotherapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) operative in more than 350 centers worldwide. Although its efficacy and favorable safety profile have driven its widespread use, elucidation of its underlying mechanism has been difficult. In this study, we identify the principal contributors to the anticancer immunotherapeutic effects of ECP, with the goal of enhancing potency and broadening applicability to additional malignancies. First, we scaled down the clinical ECP leukocyte-processing device to mouse size. Second, we used that miniaturized device to produce a cellular vaccine that regularly initiated therapeutic antimelanoma immunity. Third, we individually subtracted key factors from either the immunizing inoculum or the treated animal to ascertain their contribution to the in vivo antimelanoma response. Platelet-signaled monocyte-to-dendritic cell (DC) differentiation followed by sorting/processing/presentation of tumor antigens derived from internalized apoptotic tumor cells were absolute requirements. As in clinical ECP, immunogenic cell death of tumor cells was finely titrated by DNA cross-linkage mediated by photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOPA). ECP-induced tumor-loaded DC were effective immunotherapeutic agents only if they were spared exposure to 8-MOPA, indicating that healthy DC are required for ECP. Infusion of responder T cells into naïve tumor-challenged mice established the protective role of stimulated T-cell antitumor immunity. Collectively, these results reveal that selective antitumor effects of ECP are initiated by tumor antigen–loaded, ECP-induced DC, which promote potent collaboration between CD4 and CD8 tumor-specific T cells. These mechanistic insights suggest potential therapeutic applicability of ECP to solid tumors in addition to CTCL.Significance: These findings identify principal cellular contributors to the anticancer immunotherapeutic impact of ECP and suggest this treatment may be applicable to a broad spectrum of immunogenic malignancies. Cancer Res; 78(14); 4045–58. ©2018 AACR.