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Supplementary Figure 4 from Expression of G Protein-Coupled Receptor 19 in Human Lung Cancer Cells Is Triggered by Entry into S-Phase and Supports G2–M Cell-Cycle Progression

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posted on 2023-04-03, 17:46 authored by Stefan Kastner, Tilman Voss, Simon Keuerleber, Christina Glöckel, Michael Freissmuth, Wolfgang Sommergruber

PDF file - 74K, Binding of E2F1-4 to the promoter of Gpr19. The result of chromatin immunoprecipitation is shown (full size agarose gel).

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

It has long been known that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are subject to illegitimate expression in tumor cells. Presumably, hijacking the normal physiologic functions of GPCRs contributes to all biologic capabilities acquired during tumorigenesis. Here, we searched for GPCRs that were expressed in lung cancer: the mRNA encoding orphan G protein-coupled receptor 19 (GPR19) was found frequently overexpressed in tissue samples obtained from patients with small cell lung cancer. Several observations indicate that overexpression of Gpr19 confers a specific advantage to lung cancer cells by accelerating transition through the cell-cycle. (i) Knockdown of Gpr19 mRNA by RNA interference reduced cell growth of human lung cancer cell lines. (ii) Cell-cycle progression through G2–M-phase was impaired in cells transfected with siRNAs directed against Gpr19 and this was associated with increased protein levels of cyclin B1 and phosphorylated histone H3. (iii) The expression levels of Gpr19 mRNA varied along the cell-cycle with a peak observed in S-phase. (iv) The putative control of Gpr19 expression by E2F transcription factors was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation: antibodies directed against E2F-1 to -4 allowed for the recovery of the Gpr19 promoter. (v) Removal of E2F binding sites in the Gpr19 promoter diminished the expression of a luciferase reporter. (vi) E2f and Gpr19 expression correlated in lung cancer patient samples. To the best of knowledge, this is the first example of a GPCR showing cell-cycle-specific mRNA expression. Our data also validate GPR19 as a candidate target when overexpressed in lung cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 10(10); 1343–58. ©2012 AACR.

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