PDF file - 69K, Inhibition of the F protein by the anti-F neutralizing antibody, and IFN-γ induction upon treatment with scIL-12-HVJ-E.
ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: Cancer immunotherapy has encountered many difficulties in the face of the expectation to eradicate cancer, and new breakthroughs are required. We have previously shown that UV-inactivated Sendai virus particles (hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope; HVJ-E) induce immunity against multiple tumor types. In this study, a novel pseudovirion that stimulates more robust antitumor immunity was designed for cancer treatment.Experimental Design: First, we found that culturing murine splenocytes with HVJ-E in combination with interleukin (IL)-12 resulted in a remarkable increase in IFN-γ production compared with that observed in splenocytes cultured with IL-12 alone. The synergistic effects of HVJ-E and IL-12 on IFN-γ production were caused by viral F proteins independently of HVJ-E fusion activity and not by hemagglutination from hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins. We next constructed HN-depleted HVJ-E expressing the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) on the envelope and single-chain IL-12 containing the ZZ domain of protein A to produce an IL-12–conjugated HVJ-E particle without hemagglutinating activity.Results: IL-12–conjugated HVJ-E dramatically enhanced the amount of IFN-γ produced by immune cells. Intratumoral injection of IL-12–conjugated HVJ-E eradicated murine melanomas more effectively than injection of wild-type HVJ-E through increased production of melanoma-specific CTLs. IL-12–conjugated HVJ-E preferentially accumulated in the lungs after systemic administration. When small metastatic melanoma foci were formed in the lungs, systemic administration of IL-12–conjugated HVJ-E significantly reduced the number of metastatic foci by inducing local production of IFN-γ in the lungs and generating large numbers of melanoma-specific CTLs.Conclusion: IL-12–conjugated HVJ-E is a promising tool for the treatment of cancers, including lung metastasis. Clin Cancer Res; 19(3); 668–79. ©2012 AACR.