American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure 2 from Suppression of IRF4 by IRF1, 3, and 7 in Noxa Expression Is a Necessary Event for IFN-γ–Mediated Tumor Elimination

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-04-03, 18:04 authored by Sujan Piya, Ae Ran Moon, Peter I. Song, John Hiscott, Rongtuan Lin, Dai-Wu Seol, Tae-Hyoung Kim

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IFN-γ plays a critical role in tumor immunosurveillance by affecting either immune cells or tumor cells; however, IFN-mediated effects on tumor elimination are largely unknown. In this study, we showed that IFN regulatory factors (IRF) modulated by IFNs up- and downregulated Noxa expression, a prodeath BH3 protein, in various cancer cells. Inhibition of Noxa expression using short hairpin RNA in tumor cells leads to resistance against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor elimination, in which IFN-γ is known as a critical effecter in mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in both CT26 cells and SP2/0 cells, sensitive and resistant to LPS-induced tumor elimination, respectively, revealed that the responsiveness of IRF1, 3, 4, and 7 in the Noxa promoter region in response to IFN-γ might be crucial in LPS-induced tumor elimination. IRF1, 3, and 7 were upregulated by IFN-γ and activated Noxa expression, leading to the death of Noxa wild-type baby mouse kidney (BMK) cells but not of Noxa-deficient BMK cells. In contrast, IRF4 acts as a repressor for Noxa expression and inhibits cell death induced by IRF1, 3, or 7. Therefore, although IFN-γ alone are not able to induce cell death in tumor cells in vitro, Noxa induction by IFN-γ, which is regulated by the balance between its activators (IRF1, 3, and 7) and its repressor (IRF4), is crucial to increasing the susceptibility of tumor cells to immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Mol Cancer Res; 9(10); 1356–65. ©2011 AACR.