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Supplementary Figure 2 from Sulindac Metabolites Induce Proteosomal and Lysosomal Degradation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

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posted on 2023-04-03, 19:33 authored by Heather A. Pangburn, Dennis J. Ahnen, Pamela L. Rice
Supplementary Figure 2 from Sulindac Metabolites Induce Proteosomal and Lysosomal Degradation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In response to ligand, EGFR is internalized and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome/lysosome pathway. We previously reported that metabolites of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac downregulate the expression of EGFR and inhibit basal and EGF-induced EGFR signaling through extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. We now have evaluated the mechanisms of sulindac metabolite–induced downregulation of EGFR. EGF-induced downregulation of EGFR occurs within 10 minutes and lasts for 24 hours. By contrast, downregulation of EGFR by sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone was first evident at 4 and 24 hours, respectively, with maximal downregulation at 72 hours. Pretreatment with either the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine or the proteosomal inhibitor MG132 blocked sulindac metabolite–induced downregulation of EGFR. Sulindac metabolites also increased the ubiquitination of EGFR. Whereas sulindac metabolites inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR pY1068, they increased phosphorylation of EGFR pY1045, the docking site where c-Cbl binds, thereby enabling receptor ubiquitination and degradation. Immunofluorescence analysis of EGF and EGFR distribution confirmed the biochemical observations that sulindac metabolites alter EGFR localization and EGFR internalization in a manner similar to that seen with EGF treatment. Expression of ErbB family members HER2 and HER3 was also downregulated by sulindac metabolites. We conclude that downregulation of EGFR expression by sulindac metabolites is mediated via lysosomal and proteosomal degradation that may be due to drug-induced phosphorylation at pY1045 with resultant ubiquitination of EGFR. Thus, sulindac metabolite–induced downregulation of EGFR seems to be mediated through mechanism(s) similar, at least in part, to those involved in EGF-induced downregulation of EGFR. Cancer Prev Res; 3(4); 560–72. ©2010 AACR.