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Supplementary Figure 2 from Down-regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Is a Major Molecular Determinant of Proteasome Inhibitor–Mediated Antiangiogenic Action in Endothelial Cells

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posted on 2023-03-30, 19:14 authored by Markus Meissner, Gabi Reichenbach, Monika Stein, Igor Hrgovic, Roland Kaufmann, Jens Gille
Supplementary Figure 2 from Down-regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Is a Major Molecular Determinant of Proteasome Inhibitor–Mediated Antiangiogenic Action in Endothelial Cells

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major pathway for intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. This system controls a wide range of cellular regulatory proteins, including transcription factors and cell cycle regulatory proteins. Recent evidence also established the importance of the proteasome in tumor development, showing antitumor and antiangiogenic actions by using selective inhibitors in vivo. As signaling via the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) pathway is critical for angiogenic responses to occur, we explored whether antiangiogenic effects due to proteasome inhibition were partly mediated through decreased endothelial VEGFR2 expression. This study shows that different proteasome inhibitors blocked VEGFR2 expression in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. This blockade was paralleled by the respective inhibition of the formation of capillary-like structures and endothelial cell migration. In contrast, neither tie-2 nor VEGFR1 expression was significantly affected by proteasome inhibitor treatment. The suppressive effects on VEGFR2 expression were not conveyed by increased shedding or a decrease in protein half-life, suggesting that transcriptional mechanisms accounted for the observed effects. In line with this conclusion, proteasome inhibition significantly suppressed VEGFR2 mRNA accumulation. In addition, inhibitor treatment considerably decreased the transcriptional activity of 5′ deletional VEGFR2 promoter gene constructs. Proteasome inhibition–mediated repression was controlled by a GC-rich region that harbored one consensus Sp1-binding site. Subsequent EMSA analyses showed decreased constitutive Sp1-dependent DNA binding in response to proteasome inhibition. In addition, we could show that proteasome inhibitors reduced VEGFR2 mRNA stability. Therefore, VEGFR2 expression may constitute a critical molecular target of proteasome inhibitors that may mediate their antiangiogenic effects in vivo. [Cancer Res 2009;69(5):1976–84]

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