ARTICLE ABSTRACTSS1P is a recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) engineered for the targeted elimination of malignant cells that express the tumor-associated antigen mesothelin. It is composed of an antimesothelin antibody variable fragment (Fv) linked to a cytotoxic fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) that includes domains II and III of native PE. The clinical use of SS1P is limited by its propensity to induce neutralizing antibodies and to cause a dose-limiting capillary leak syndrome (CLS) in patients. In this article, we describe a reengineered SS1P with improved properties that overcome these deficits. The redesign of SS1P consists of (i) removing the bulk of PE domain II (residues 251–273 and 284–394 of native PE), leaving only an 11-residue furin cleavage site, (ii) adding a Gly–Gly–Ser peptide linker after the furin cleavage site, and (iii) replacing eight highly solvent-exposed residues in the catalytic domain of PE. The new molecule, SS1-LR/GGS/8M, has cytotoxic activity comparable with SS1P on several mesothelin-expressing cell lines and remarkably improved activity on primary cells from patients with mesothelioma. In a mouse xenograft tumor model, high doses of SS1-LR/GGS/8M elicit antitumor activity superior to the activity of SS1P at its maximum-tolerated dose. In addition, SS1-LR/GGS/8M has greatly decreased ability to cause CLS in a rat model and reduced antigenicity or reactivity with antibodies to the sera of patients previously treated with SS1P. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(1); 48–57. ©2012 AACR.