ARTICLE ABSTRACTHelicobacter pylori infection promotes male predominant gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Estrogens reduce gastric cancer risk and previous studies showed that prophylactic 17β-estradiol (E2) in INS-GAS mice decreases H. pylori–induced carcinogenesis. We examined the effect of E2 and tamoxifen (TAM) on H. pylori–induced gastric cancer in male and female INS-GAS mice. After confirming robust gastric pathology at 16 weeks postinfection (WPI), mice were implanted with E2, TAM, both E2 and TAM, or placebo pellets for 12 weeks. At 28 WPI, gastric histopathology, gene expression, and immune cell infiltration were evaluated and serum inflammatory cytokines measured. After treatment, no gastric cancer was observed in H. pylori–infected males receiving E2 and/or TAM, whereas 40% of infected untreated males developed gastric cancer. E2, TAM, and their combination significantly reduced gastric precancerous lesions in infected males compared with infected untreated males (P < 0.001, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). However, TAM did not alter female pathology regardless of infection status. Differentially expressed genes from males treated with E2 or TAM (n = 363 and n = 144, Q < 0.05) associated highly with cancer and cellular movement, indicating overlapping pathways in the reduction of gastric lesions. E2 or TAM deregulated genes associated with metastasis (PLAUR and MMP10) and Wnt inhibition (FZD6 and SFRP2). Compared with controls, E2 decreased gastric mRNA (Q < 0.05) and serum levels (P < 0.05) of CXCL1, a neutrophil chemokine, leading to decreased neutrophil infiltration (P < 0.01). Prevention of H. pylori–induced gastric cancer by E2 and TAM may be mediated by estrogen signaling and is associated with decreased CXCL1, decreased neutrophil counts, and downregulation of oncogenic pathways. Cancer Prev Res; 4(9); 1426–35. ©2011 AACR.