American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure 1 from Inhibition of the Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase Pump Sensitizes Cancer Cells to Anoikis and Prevents Distant Tumor Formation

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posted on 2023-03-30, 19:04 authored by Craig D. Simpson, Imtiaz A. Mawji, Kika Anyiwe, Moyo A. Williams, Xiaoming Wang, Amudha L. Venugopal, Marcela Gronda, Rose Hurren, Sonia Cheng, Stefano Serra, Reza Beheshti Zavareh, Alessandro Datti, Jeffrey L. Wrana, Shereen Ezzat, Aaron D. Schimmer
Supplementary Figure 1 from Inhibition of the Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase Pump Sensitizes Cancer Cells to Anoikis and Prevents Distant Tumor Formation

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Normal epithelial cells undergo apoptosis upon detachment from the extracellular matrix, a process termed “anoikis.” However, malignant epithelial cells with metastatic potential resist anoikis and can survive in an anchorage-independent fashion. Molecules that sensitize resistant cells to anoikis will be useful chemical probes to understand this pathway. To identify novel anoikis sensitizers in anoikis-resistant PPC-1 prostate adenocarcinoma cells, a library of 2,000 off-patent drugs and natural products was screened for their ability to preferentially induce cell death in suspension over adherent culture conditions. This screen identified five members of the family of cardiac glycosides as anoikis sensitizers, including ouabain, peruvoside, digoxin, digitoxin, and strophanthidin. We conducted further studies with ouabain to discern the mechanism of cardiac glycoside-induced anoikis sensitization. Ouabain initiated anoikis through the mitochondrial pathway of caspase activation. In addition, ouabain sensitized cells to anoikis by inhibiting its known target, the Na+/K+ ATPase pump, and inducing hypoosmotic stress. Resistance to anoikis permits cancer cells to survive in the circulation and facilitates their metastasis to distant organs, so we tested the effects of Na+/K+ ATPase inhibition on distant tumor formation in mouse models. In these mouse models, ouabain inhibited tumor metastases but did not alter the growth of subcutaneous tumors. Thus, we have identified a novel mechanism to sensitize resistant cells to anoikis and decrease tumor metastasis. These results suggest a potential mechanism for the observed clinical reduction in metastasis and relapse in breast cancer patients who have undergone treatments with cardiac glycosides. [Cancer Res 2009;69(7):2739–47]