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Supplementary Figure 1 from Inhibition of Growth and Metastasis of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma by Selective Inhibitor of Transforming Growth Factor-β Type I Receptor Kinase In vivo

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posted on 2023-03-31, 16:04 authored by Rongrong Ge, Vaishali Rajeev, Partha Ray, Edmund Lattime, Susan Rittling, Satya Medicherla, Andy Protter, Alison Murphy, Jit Chakravarty, Sundeep Dugar, George Schreiner, Nicola Barnard, Michael Reiss
Supplementary Figure 1 from Inhibition of Growth and Metastasis of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma by Selective Inhibitor of Transforming Growth Factor-β Type I Receptor Kinase In vivo

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Purpose: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) suppresses tumor development by inhibiting cellular proliferation, inducing differentiation and apoptosis, and maintaining genomic integrity. However, once tumor cells escape from the tumor-suppressive effects of TGF-β, they often constitutively overexpress and activate TGF-β, which may promote tumor progression by enhancing invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis and by suppressing antitumor immunity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis using TGF-β pathway antagonists.Experimental Design: We examined the effects of selective TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitors, SD-093 and SD-208, on two murine mammary carcinoma cell lines (R3T and 4T1) in vitro and in vivo.Results: Both agents blocked TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of the receptor-associated Smads, Smad2 and Smad3, in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 between 20 and 80 nmol/L. TGF-β failed to inhibit growth of these cell lines but stimulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation, migration, and invasiveness into Matrigel in vitro. These effects were inhibited by SD-093, indicating that these processes are partly driven by TGF-β. Treatment of syngeneic R3T or 4T1 tumor-bearing mice with orally given SD-208 inhibited primary tumor growth as well as the number and size of metastases. In contrast, SD-208 failed to inhibit R3T tumor growth or metastasis in athymic nude mice. Moreover, in vitro anti-4T1 cell cytotoxic T-cell responses of splenocytes from drug-treated animals were enhanced compared with cells from control animals. In addition, SD-208 treatment resulted in a decrease in tumor angiogenesis.Conclusion: TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitors hold promise as novel therapeutic agents for metastatic breast cancer.

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