ARTICLE ABSTRACTThe G2 DNA damage checkpoint is activated by genotoxic agents and is particularly important for cancer therapies. Overriding the checkpoint can trigger precocious entry into mitosis, causing cells to undergo mitotic catastrophe. But some checkpoint-abrogated cells can remain viable and progress into G1 phase, which may contribute to further genome instability. Our previous studies reveal that the effectiveness of the spindle assembly checkpoint and the duration of mitosis are pivotal determinants of mitotic catastrophe after checkpoint abrogation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis whether mitotic catastrophe could be enhanced by combining genotoxic stress, checkpoint abrogation, and the inhibition of the mitotic kinesin protein Eg5. We found that mitotic catastrophe induced by ionizing radiation and a CHK1 inhibitor (UCN-01) was exacerbated after Eg5 was inhibited with either siRNAs or monastrol. The combination of DNA damage, UCN-01, and monastrol sensitized cancer cells that were normally resistant to checkpoint abrogation. Importantly, a relatively low concentration of monastrol, alone not sufficient in causing mitotic arrest, was already effective in promoting mitotic catastrophe. These experiments suggest that it is possible to use sublethal concentrations of Eg5 inhibitors in combination with G2 DNA damage checkpoint abrogation as an effective therapeutic approach. Mol Cancer Res; 10(5); 626–35. ©2012 AACR.