American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure 1 from IFNβ Produced by TLR4-Activated Tumor Cells Is Involved in Improving the Antitumoral Immune Response

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-30, 21:27 authored by Nicolás Gonzalo Núñez, Virginia Andreani, María Inés Crespo, David Andrés Nocera, María Laura Breser, Gabriel Morón, Lien Dejager, Claude Libert, Virginia Rivero, Mariana Maccioni

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Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands may be a valuable tool to promote antitumor responses by reinforcing antitumor immunity. In addition to their expression in immune cells, functional TLRs are also expressed by many cancer cells, but their significance has been controversial. In this study, we examined the action of TLR ligands on tumor pathophysiology as a result of direct tumor cell effects. B16 murine melanoma cells were stimulated in vitro with a TLR4 ligand (LPS-B16) prior to inoculation into TLR4-deficient mice (Tlr4 lps-del). Under such conditions, B16 cells yielded smaller tumors than nonstimulated B16 cells. The apoptosis/proliferation balance of the cells was not modified by TLR ligand treatment, nor was this effect compromised in immunocompromised nude mice. Mechanistic investigations revealed that IFNβ was the critical factor produced by TLR4-activated tumor cells in mediating their in vivo outgrowth. Transcriptional analysis showed that TLR4 activation on B16 cells induced changes in the expression of type I IFN and type I IFN-related genes. Most importantly, culture supernatants from LPS-B16 cells improved the maturation of bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from TLR4-deficient mice, upregulating the expression of interleukin-12 and costimulatory molecules on those cells. BMDC maturation was blunted by addition of an IFNβ-neutralizing antibody. Moreover, tumor growth inhibition observed in LPS-B16 tumors was abrogated in IFNAR1-deficient mice lacking a functional type I IFN receptor for binding IFN. Together, our findings show that tumor cells can be induced through the TLR4 pathway to produce IFN and positively contribute to the antitumoral immune response. Cancer Res; 72(3); 592–603. ©2011 AACR.

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