Figure S1: Negative control for immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry (A) Negative control for Cilia, and Sox9 (B) Representative image of negative control for CD4, CD8, FoxP3, MHC class I and HLA-DR-class II staining using tonsil.
ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are tumors ignored by immune surveillance. Activated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling within primary cilia is a key driver in the pathogenesis of BCCs. We examined immune alterations during treatment with systemic Hh inhibitors.Experimental Design: We investigated biopsies from patients with BCC before (23 patients) and after 4 weeks of treatment (5 patients) with Hh signaling inhibitor. Ber-Ep4, BCL-2, Ki-67, CD4, CD8, MHC class I, HLA-DR-class II, and SOX9 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Primary cilia were analyzed by double immunofluorescence of acetylated tubulin and SOX9. Differential gene expression for 84 cytokines and chemokines was analyzed in 3 patients.Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, we found reduction of Ki-67, SOX9, Ber-EP4, and BCL-2 expression in tumors associated with morphologic signs of squamous differentiation. In addition, the number of cilia-positive BCC cells was significantly decreased. An upregulation of MHC I expression on the cell membranes of residual tumor cells and an influx of CD4+, HLA-DR-class II+, and CD8+ cells with invasion into the tumor cell nests were found. Finally, qPCR arrays showed the differential expression of genes involved in modulating immune responses.Conclusions: We show that Hh pathway inhibitor–induced tumor regression is accompanied by a dynamic change of the microenvironment with a disruption of immune privilege involving an influx of cytotoxic T cells, activation of the adaptive immune functions, and a profound alteration of the local chemokine/cytokine network. Clin Cancer Res; 21(6); 1289–97. ©2015 AACR.