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Supplementary Figure 1 from Clinical Outcomes and Evolution of Clonal Hematopoiesis in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-12-18, 14:40 authored by Tarek H. Mouhieddine, Chidimma Nzerem, Robert Redd, Andrew Dunford, Matthew Leventhal, Romanos Sklavenitis-Pistofidis, Sabrin Tahri, Habib El-Khoury, David P. Steensma, Benjamin L. Ebert, Robert J. Soiffer, Jonathan J. Keats, Shaadi Mehr, Daniel Auclair, Irene M. Ghobrial, Adam S. Sperling, Chip Stewart, Gad Getz

Depiction of cell mixtures for the normal (PB) sample and tumor (BM) sample showing effect of tumor purity and tumor-in-normal (TiN) contamination. Relative areas represent DNA fractions of different cell types.

Funding

EIF | Stand Up To Cancer (SU2C)

Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation (MMRF)

Dr. Miriam and Sheldon G. Adelson Medical Research Foundation (AMRF)

HHS | NIH | National Cancer Institute (NCI)

U.S. Department of Defense (DOD)

History

ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) at time of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) has been shown to be associated with decreased overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with multiple myeloma not receiving immunomodulatory drugs (IMiD). However, the significance of CH in newly diagnosed patients, including transplant ineligible patients, and its effect on clonal evolution during multiple myeloma therapy in the era of novel agents, has not been well studied. Using our new algorithm to differentiate tumor and germline mutations from CH, we detected CH in approximately 10% of 986 patients with multiple myeloma from the Clinical Outcomes in MM to Personal Assessment of Genetic Profile (CoMMpass) cohort (40/529 transplanted and 59/457 non-transplanted patients). CH was associated with increased age, risk of recurrent bacterial infections and cardiovascular disease. CH at time of multiple myeloma diagnosis was not associated with inferior OS or PFS regardless of undergoing ASCT, and all patients benefited from IMiD-based therapies, irrespective of the presence of CH. Serial sampling of 52 patients revealed the emergence of CH over a median of 3 years of treatment, increasing its prevalence to 25%, mostly with DNMT3A mutations. Using our algorithm to differentiate tumor and germline mutations from CH mutations, we detected CH in approximately 10% of patients with newly diagnosed myeloma, including both transplant eligible and ineligible patients. Receiving IMiDs improved outcomes irrespective of CH status, but the prevalence of CH significantly rose throughout myeloma-directed therapy.