ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: Antiangiogenic therapy reduces vascular permeability and delays progression but may ultimately promote an aggressive treatment-resistant phenotype. The aim of the present study was to identify mechanisms responsible for glioblastoma resistance to antiangiogenic therapy.Experimental Design: Glioma stem cell (GSC) NSC11 and U87 cell lines with acquired resistance to bevacizumab were developed from orthotopic xenografts in nude mice treated with bevacizumab. Genome-wide analyses were used to identify changes in tumor subtype and specific factors associated with resistance.Results: Mice with established parental NSC11 and U87 cells responded to bevacizumab, whereas glioma cell lines derived at the time of acquired resistance to anti-VEGF therapy were resistant to bevacizumab and did not have prolongation of survival compared with untreated controls. Gene expression profiling comparing anti-VEGF therapy-resistant cell lines to untreated controls showed an increase in genes associated with a mesenchymal origin, cellular migration/invasion, and inflammation. Gene-set enrichment analysis showed that bevacizumab-treated tumors showed a highly significant correlation to published mesenchymal gene signatures. Mice bearing resistant tumors showed significantly greater infiltration of myeloid cells in NSC11- and U87-resistant tumors. Invasion-related genes were also upregulated in both NSC11 and U87 resistant cells which had higher invasion rates in vitro compared with their respective parental cell lines.Conclusions: Our studies identify multiple proinflammatory factors associated with resistance and identify a proneural to mesenchymal transition in tumors resistant to antiangiogenic therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 19(16); 4392–403. ©2013 AACR.