American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Fig. S7 from Addressing Tumor Heterogeneity by Sensitizing Resistant Cancer Cells to T cell–Secreted Cytokines

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posted on 2023-04-21, 14:00 authored by Yoshinaga Ito, Deng Pan, Wubing Zhang, Xixi Zhang, Tiffany Y. Juan, Jason W. Pyrdol, Oleksandr Kyrysyuk, John G. Doench, X. Shirley Liu, Kai W. Wucherpfennig

Supplementary Fig. S7 shows effect of PD-1 inhibition on treatment of tumors containing a B2m-/- population.

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Tumor heterogeneity is a major barrier to cancer therapy, including immunotherapy. Activated T cells can efficiently kill tumor cells following recognition of MHC class I (MHC-I)–bound peptides, but this selection pressure favors outgrowth of MHC-I–deficient tumor cells. We performed a genome-scale screen to discover alternative pathways for T cell–mediated killing of MHC-I–deficient tumor cells. Autophagy and TNF signaling emerged as top pathways, and inactivation of Rnf31 (TNF signaling) and Atg5 (autophagy) sensitized MHC-I–deficient tumor cells to apoptosis by T cell–derived cytokines. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy amplified proapoptotic effects of cytokines in tumor cells. Antigens from apoptotic MHC-I–deficient tumor cells were efficiently cross-presented by dendritic cells, resulting in heightened tumor infiltration by IFNγ-and TNFα-producing T cells. Tumors with a substantial population of MHC-I–deficient cancer cells could be controlled by T cells when both pathways were targeted using genetic or pharmacologic approaches. Tumor heterogeneity is a major barrier to immunotherapy. We show that MHC-I–deficient tumor cells are forced into apoptosis by T cell–derived cytokines when TNF signaling and autophagy pathways are targeted. This approach enables T cell–mediated elimination of tumors with a substantial population of resistant, MHC-I–deficient tumor cells.

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