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Supplementary Data from The Ratio of Key Metabolic Transcripts Is a Predictive Biomarker of Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Lung

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posted on 2023-10-13, 07:20 authored by Deepti Mathur, Chen Liao, Wendy Lin, Alessandro La Ferlita, Salvatore Alaimo, Samuel Taylor, Yi Zhong, Christine Iacobuzio-Donahue, Alfredo Ferro, Joao B. Xavier

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National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5, Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (CSN5)

Alan and Sandra Gerry Metastasis and Tumor Ecosystems Center (GMTEC)

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Understanding the rewired metabolism underlying organ-specific metastasis in breast cancer could help identify strategies to improve the treatment and prevention of metastatic disease. Here, we used a systems biology approach to compare metabolic fluxes used by parental breast cancer cells and their brain- and lung-homing derivatives. Divergent lineages had distinct, heritable metabolic fluxes. Lung-homing cells maintained high glycolytic flux despite low levels of glycolytic intermediates, constitutively activating a pathway sink into lactate. This strong Warburg effect was associated with a high ratio of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) expression, which correlated with lung metastasis in patients with breast cancer. Although feature classification models trained on clinical characteristics alone were unable to predict tropism, the LDH/PDH ratio was a significant predictor of metastasis to the lung but not to other organs, independent of other transcriptomic signatures. High lactate efflux was also a trait in lung-homing metastatic pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting that lactate production may be a convergent phenotype in lung metastasis. Together, these analyses highlight the essential role that metabolism plays in organ-specific cancer metastasis and identify a putative biomarker for predicting lung metastasis in patients with breast cancer. Lung-homing metastatic breast cancer cells express an elevated ratio of lactate dehydrogenase to pyruvate dehydrogenase, indicating that ratios of specific metabolic gene transcripts have potential as metabolic biomarkers for predicting organ-specific metastasis.

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