Supplementary Data from Preclinical Development and Evaluation of Allogeneic CAR T Cells Targeting CD70 for the Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma
ARTICLE ABSTRACTCD70 is highly expressed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with limited expression in normal tissue, making it an attractive CAR T target for an immunogenic solid tumor indication. Here we generated and characterized a panel of anti-CD70 single-chain fragment variable (scFv)–based CAR T cells. Despite the expression of CD70 on T cells, production of CAR T cells from a subset of scFvs with potent in vitro activity was achieved. Expression of CD70 CARs masked CD70 detection in cis and provided protection from CD70 CAR T cell–mediated fratricide. Two distinct classes of CAR T cells were identified with differing memory phenotype, activation status, and cytotoxic activity. Epitope mapping revealed that the two classes of CARs bind unique regions of CD70. CD70 CAR T cells displayed robust antitumor activity against RCC cell lines and patient-derived xenograft mouse models. Tissue cross-reactivity studies identified membrane staining in lymphocytes, thus matching the known expression pattern of CD70. In a cynomolgus monkey CD3-CD70 bispecific toxicity study, expected findings related to T-cell activation and elimination of CD70-expressing cells were observed, including cytokine release and loss of cellularity in lymphoid tissues. Finally, highly functional CD70 allogeneic CAR T cells were produced at large scale through elimination of the T-cell receptor by TALEN-based gene editing. Taken together, these efficacy and safety data support the evaluation of CD70 CAR T cells for the treatment of RCC and has led to the advancement of an allogeneic CD70 CAR T-cell candidate into phase I clinical trials.
These findings demonstrate the efficacy and safety of fratricide-resistant, allogeneic anti-CD70 CAR T cells targeting renal cell carcinoma and the impact of CAR epitope on functional activity.See related commentary by Adotévi and Galaine, p. 2517