American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Data from Inhibition of IL1β by Canakinumab May Be Effective against Diverse Molecular Subtypes of Lung Cancer: An Exploratory Analysis of the CANTOS Trial

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posted on 2023-03-31, 03:20 authored by Connie C. Wong, Jason Baum, Angela Silvestro, Michael T. Beste, Bharani Bharani-Dharan, Siyan Xu, Ying A. Wang, Xiaoshan Wang, Margaret F. Prescott, Lynne Krajkovich, Margaret Dugan, Paul M. Ridker, Anne-Marie Martin, Eric C. Svensson

Supplementary Data

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

In the Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study (CANTOS), inhibition of the IL1β inflammatory pathway by canakinumab has been shown to significantly reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality. Here we performed molecular characterization of CANTOS patients who developed lung cancer during the study, including circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and soluble inflammatory biomarker analysis. Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database ctDNA mutations were detected in 65% (46/71) of the CANTOS patients with lung cancer, with 51% (36/71) having detectable ctDNA at the time point closest to lung cancer diagnosis and 43% (29/67) having detectable ctDNA at trial randomization. Mutations commonly found in lung cancer were observed with no evidence of enrichment in any mutation following canakinumab treatment. Median time to lung cancer diagnosis in patients with (n = 29) versus without (n = 38) detectable COSMIC ctDNA mutations at baseline was 407 days versus 837 days (P = 0.011). For serum inflammatory biomarker analysis, circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), IL6, IL18, IL1 receptor antagonist, TNFα, leptin, adiponectin, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were determined. Patients with the highest level of baseline CRP or IL6, both downstream of IL1β signaling, trended toward a shorter time to lung cancer diagnosis. Other inflammation markers outside of the IL1β pathway at baseline did not trend with time to lung cancer diagnosis. These results provide further evidence for the importance of IL1β-mediated protumor inflammation in lung cancer and suggest canakinumab's effect may be mediated in part by delaying disease progression of diverse molecular subtypes of lung cancer. These findings suggest that targeting the IL1β inflammatory pathway might be critical in reducing tumor-promoting inflammation and lung cancer incidence.