ARTICLE ABSTRACTHDAC5 is a class IIa histone deacetylase member that is downregulated in multiple solid tumors, including pancreatic cancer, and loss of HDAC5 is associated with unfavorable prognosis. In this study, assessment of The Cancer Genome Atlas pancreatic adenocarcinoma dataset revealed that expression of HDAC5 correlates negatively with arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, which has been implicated in inflammatory responses and cancer progression. Nontargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that HDAC5 knockdown resulted in a significant increase in AA and its downstream metabolites, such as eicosanoids and prostaglandins. HDAC5 negatively regulated the expression of the gene encoding calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), the key enzyme in the production of AA from phospholipids. Mechanistically, HDAC5 repressed cPLA2 expression via deacetylation of GATA1. HDAC5 knockdown in cancer cells enhanced sensitivity to genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of cPLA2 in vitro and in vivo. Fatty acid supplementation in the diet reversed the sensitivity of HDAC5-deficient tumors to cPLA2 inhibition. These data indicate that HDAC5 loss in pancreatic cancer results in the hyperacetylation of GATA1, enabling the upregulation of cPLA2, which contributes to overproduction of AA. Dietary management plus cPLA2-targeted therapy could serve as a viable strategy for treating HDAC5-deficient pancreatic cancer patients.
The HDAC5-GATA1-cPLA2-AA signaling axis regulates sensitivity to fat restriction plus cPLA2 inhibition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, proposing dietary management as a feasible strategy for treating a subset of patients with pancreatic cancer.