West China Hospital, Sichuan University (WCH)
National Natural Science Foundation of China
Bethune Cancer Radiotherapy Translational Medicine Research Foundation
Sichuan Cancer Society Foundation
ARTICLE ABSTRACTLow-dose radiotherapy (LDRT) may enhance the synergistic antitumor effect of combined immunotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The safety and efficacy of this novel triple-combination therapy were evaluated for the first time as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
This prospective phase I study enrolled 29 patients and included a dose-escalation and dose-expansion phase. Patients received SBRT [30 Gray (Gy)/3f] to small lesions and LDRT (2 Gy/1f, 4 Gy/2f, or 10 Gy/5f) to a large lesion concurrently, followed by sintilimab (a programmed death-1 inhibitor). The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability; secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).
No dose-limiting toxicities were observed during the dose-escalation phase; 4 Gy/2f was the recommended LDRT dose. Median follow-up was 15.6 months. Treatment-related adverse events (TRAE) occurred in 96.6% (28/29) of patients [grade ≥ 3; 20.7% (6/29)]; 2 patients (6.9%) discontinued due to TRAEs. Seven patients experienced pneumonitis (grade 2, n = 6; grade 3, n = 1). Immune-related adverse events were noted in 58.6% (17/29) of patients. In patients with tumor assessment (n = 28), ORR and confirmed ORR were 60.7% and 57.1%, respectively. Median PFS was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 3.7–16.5), and median OS was not reached. Exploratory analyses suggested both expanded and newly emerging T-cell receptor clonotypes were associated with better PFS.
The findings indicate that the novel SBRT + LDRT + sintilimab therapy is safe and promising in patients with programmed death ligand-1–positive, driver gene–negative primary metastatic NSCLC.