American Association for Cancer Research
19406207capr120431-sup-appendix_1.pdf (30.61 kB)

Supplementary Appendix 1 from Increased Levels of Urinary PGE-M, a Biomarker of Inflammation, Occur in Association with Obesity, Aging, and Lung Metastases in Patients with Breast Cancer

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-04-03, 19:04 authored by Patrick G. Morris, Xi Kathy Zhou, Ginger L. Milne, Daniel Goldstein, Laura C. Hawks, Chau T. Dang, Shanu Modi, Monica N. Fornier, Clifford A. Hudis, Andrew J. Dannenberg

PDF file - 30K, Study questionnaire used to collect smoking and NSAID data.



Elevated levels of COX-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) occur in inflamed tissues. To evaluate the potential links between inflammation and breast cancer, levels of urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M), a stable end metabolite of PGE2, were quantified. We enrolled 400 patients with breast cancer: controls with early breast cancer (n = 200), lung metastases (n = 100), and metastases to other sites (n = 100). Patients completed a questionnaire, provided urine, and had measurements of height and weight. Urinary PGE-M was quantified by mass spectrometry. Ever smokers with lung metastasis who had not been exposed to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) had the highest PGE-M levels. PGE-M levels were increased in association with elevated body mass index (BMI; P < 0.001), aging (P < 0.001), pack-year smoking history (P = 0.02), lung metastases (P = 0.02), and recent cytotoxic chemotherapy (P = 0.03). Conversely, use of NSAIDs, prototypic inhibitors of COX activity, was associated with reduced PGE-M levels (P < 0.001). On the basis of the current findings, PGE-M is likely to be a useful biomarker for the selection of high-risk subgroups to determine the use of interventions that aim to reduce inflammation and possibly the development and progression of breast cancer, especially in overweight and obese women. Cancer Prev Res; 6(5); 428–36. ©2013 AACR.