American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplemental Figures 1-6 from Blocking Indolamine-2,3-Dioxygenase Rebound Immune Suppression Boosts Antitumor Effects of Radio-Immunotherapy in Murine Models and Spontaneous Canine Malignancies

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posted on 2023-03-31, 20:08 authored by Arta M. Monjazeb, Michael S. Kent, Steven K. Grossenbacher, Christine Mall, Anthony E. Zamora, Annie Mirsoian, Mingyi Chen, Amir Kol, Stephen L. Shiao, Abhinav Reddy, Julian R. Perks, William T.N. Culp, Ellen E. Sparger, Robert J. Canter, Gail D. Sckisel, William J. Murphy

Supplemental Figure 1: Schema and background data for the canine clinical trial; Supplemental Figure 2: flow cytometry based immunophenotyping of peripheral and tumor draining lymph nodes; Supplemental Figure 3: Flow cytometric assessment of Treg levels at day 21; Supplemental Figure 4: Intratumoral IL-6 levels; Supplemental Figure 5: CD8+ T-cell dependent effects of RT + CpG + 1MT; Supplemental Figure 6: Intratumoral DC activation

Funding

NIH

American Cancer Society

Amador Cancer Research Foundation and Christine and Helen Landgraf Award

NCI

History

ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Purpose: Previous studies demonstrate that intratumoral CpG immunotherapy in combination with radiotherapy acts as an in-situ vaccine inducing antitumor immune responses capable of eradicating systemic disease. Unfortunately, most patients fail to respond. We hypothesized that immunotherapy can paradoxically upregulate immunosuppressive pathways, a phenomenon we term “rebound immune suppression,” limiting clinical responses. We further hypothesized that the immunosuppressive enzyme indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a mechanism of rebound immune suppression and that IDO blockade would improve immunotherapy efficacy.Experimental Design: We examined the efficacy and immunologic effects of a novel triple therapy consisting of local radiotherapy, intratumoral CpG, and systemic IDO blockade in murine models and a pilot canine clinical trial.Results: In murine models, we observed marked increase in intratumoral IDO expression after treatment with radiotherapy, CpG, or other immunotherapies. The addition of IDO blockade to radiotherapy + CpG decreased IDO activity, reduced tumor growth, and reduced immunosuppressive factors, such as regulatory T cells in the tumor microenvironment. This triple combination induced systemic antitumor effects, decreasing metastases, and improving survival in a CD8+ T-cell–dependent manner. We evaluated this novel triple therapy in a canine clinical trial, because spontaneous canine malignancies closely reflect human cancer. Mirroring our mouse studies, the therapy was well tolerated, reduced intratumoral immunosuppression, and induced robust systemic antitumor effects.Conclusions: These results suggest that IDO maintains immune suppression in the tumor after therapy, and IDO blockade promotes a local antitumor immune response with systemic consequences. The efficacy and limited toxicity of this strategy are attractive for clinical translation. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4328–40. ©2016 AACR.