American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplemental Figure Legends from Keratin 19, a Cancer Stem Cell Marker in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-31, 18:27 authored by Takayuki Kawai, Kentaro Yasuchika, Takamichi Ishii, Hokahiro Katayama, Elena Yukie Yoshitoshi, Satoshi Ogiso, Sadahiko Kita, Katsutaro Yasuda, Ken Fukumitsu, Masaki Mizumoto, Etsuro Hatano, Shinji Uemoto

Supplemental Figure Legends. The description of the Supplemental Figure 1-3



Purpose: Keratin 19 (K19) is a known marker of poor prognosis and invasion in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between K19 and cancer stem cells (CSCs) is unclear. Here, we determined whether K19 can be used as a new CSC marker and therapeutic target in HCC.Experimental Design: HCC cell lines were transfected with a K19 promoter–driven enhanced green fluorescence protein gene. CSC characteristics, epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and TGFb/Smad signaling were examined in FACS-isolated K19+/K19− cells. K19 and TGFb receptor 1 (TGFbR1) expression in 166 consecutive human HCC surgical specimens was examined immunohistochemically.Results: FACS-isolated single K19+ cells showed self-renewal and differentiation into K19− cells, whereas single K19− cells did not produce K19+ cells. K19+ cells displayed high proliferation capacity and 5-fluorouracil resistance in vitro. Xenotransplantation into immunodeficient mice revealed that K19+ cells reproduced, differentiated into K19− cells, and generated large tumors at a high frequency in vivo. K19+ cells were found to be involved in EMT and the activation of TGFb/Smad signaling, and these properties were suppressed by K19 knockdown or treatment with a TGFbR1 inhibitor. The TGFbR1 inhibitor also showed high therapeutic effect against K19+ tumor in the mouse xenograft model. Immunohistochemistry of HCC specimens showed that compared with K19− patients, K19+ patients had significantly poorer recurrence-free survival and higher tumor TGFbR1 expression.Conclusions: K19 is a new CSC marker associated with EMT and TGFb/Smad signaling, and it would thus be a good therapeutic target for TGFbR1 inhibition. Clin Cancer Res; 21(13); 3081–91. ©2015 AACR.