ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: Radiotherapy is a highly effective anticancer treatment forming part of the standard of care for the majority of patients, but local and distal disease recurrence remains a major cause of mortality. Radiotherapy is known to enhance tumor immunogenicity; however, the contribution and mechanisms of radiotherapy-induced immune responses are unknown.Experimental Design: The impact of low-dose fractionated radiotherapy (5 × 2 Gy) alone and in combination with αPD-1 mAb on the tumor microenvironment was evaluated by flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. A dual-tumor model was used, with fractionated radiotherapy delivered to a single tumor site to enable evaluation of the local and systemic response to treatment and ability to induce abscopal responses outside the radiation field.Results: We show that fractionated radiotherapy leads to T-cell infiltration at the irradiated site; however, the TCR landscape remains dominated by polyclonal expansion of preexisting T-cell clones. Adaptive resistance via the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway restricts the generation of systemic anticancer immunity following radiotherapy, which can be overcome through combination with αPD-1 mAb leading to improved local and distal tumor control. Moreover, we show that effective clearance of tumor following combination therapy is dependent on both T cells resident in the tumor at the time of radiotherapy and infiltrating T cells.Conclusions: These data provide evidence that radiotherapy can enhance T-cell trafficking to locally treated tumor sites and augment preexisting anticancer T-cell responses with the capacity to mediate regression of out-of-field tumor lesions when delivered in combination with αPD-1 mAb therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(18); 5514–26. ©2017 AACR.