ARTICLE ABSTRACTAlveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) patients have a poor prognosis, and this is primarily due to overexpression of the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1. Results of RNA-sequencing studies show that PAX3-FOXO1 represses expression of interleukin-24 (IL24), and these two genes are inversely expressed in patient tumors. PAX3-FOXO1 also regulates histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in ARMS cells, and results of RNA interference studies confirmed that PAX3-FOXO1–mediated repression of IL24 is HDAC5-dependent. Knockdown of PAX3-FOXO1 decreases ARMS cell proliferation, survival, and migration, and we also observed similar responses in cells after overexpression of IL24, consistent with results reported for this tumor suppressor–like cytokine in other solid tumors. We also observed in double knockdown studies that the inhibition of ARMS cell proliferation, survival, and migration after knockdown of PAX3-FOXO1 was significantly (>75%) reversed by knockdown of IL24. Adenoviral-expressed IL24 was directly injected into ARMS tumors in athymic nude mice, and this resulted in decreased tumor growth and weight. Because adenoviral IL24 has already successfully undergone phase I in clinical trials, this represents an alternative approach (alone and/or combination) for treating ARMS patients who currently undergo cytotoxic drug therapies.