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Supplemental Figure 1 from The Landscape of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta Genomic Alterations in Cancer

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posted on 2023-04-03, 18:26 authored by Brittany A. Borden, Yasmine Baca, Joanne Xiu, Fabio Tavora, Ira Winer, Benjamin A. Weinberg, Ari M. Vanderwalde, Sourat Darabi, W. Michael Korn, Andrew P. Mazar, Francis J. Giles, Lorin Crawford, Howard Safran, Wafik S. El-Deiry, Benedito A. Carneiro

Tumor microenvironment in GSK-3B-mutated tumors across histologies.

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, with involvement in cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, and immune response. Small-molecule GSK-3β inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical investigation. Tumor sequencing has revealed genomic alterations in GSK-3β, yet an assessment of the genomic landscape in malignancies is lacking. This study assessed >100,000 tumors from two databases to analyze GSK-3β alterations. GSK-3β expression and immune cell infiltrate data were analyzed across cancer types, and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression was compared between GSK-3β–mutated and wild-type tumors. GSK-3β was mutated at a rate of 1%. The majority of mutated residues were in the kinase domain, with frequent mutations occurring in a GSK-3β substrate binding pocket. Uterine endometrioid carcinoma was the most commonly mutated (4%) tumor, and copy-number variations were most commonly observed in squamous histologies. Significant differences across cancer types for GSK-3β–mutated tumors were observed for B cells (P = 0.018), monocytes (P = 0.002), dendritic cells (P = 0.005), neutrophils (P = 0.0003), and endothelial cells (P = 0.014). GSK-3β mRNA expression was highest in melanoma. The frequency of PD-L1 expression was higher among GSK-3β–mutated tumors compared with wild type in colorectal cancer (P = 0.03), endometrial cancer (P = 0.05), melanoma (P = 0.02), ovarian carcinoma (P = 0.0001), and uterine sarcoma (P = 0.002). Overall, GSK-3β molecular alterations were detected in approximately 1% of solid tumors, tumors with GSK-3β mutations displayed a microenvironment with increased infiltration of B cells, and GSK-3β mutations were associated with increased PD-L1 expression in selected histologies. These results advance the understanding of GSK-3β complex signaling network interfacing with key pathways involved in carcinogenesis and immune response.

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    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

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