ARTICLE ABSTRACTChondrosarcoma is a highly aggressive primary malignant bone tumor mostly occurring in adults. There are no effective systemic treatments, and patients with this disease have poor survival. miR-181a is an oncomiR that is overexpressed in high-grade chondrosarcoma and promotes tumor progression. Regulator of G-protein signaling 16 (RGS16) is a target of miR-181a. Inhibition of RGS16 expression by miR-181a enhances CXC chemokine receptor 4 signaling, which in turn increases MMP1 and VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Here, we report the results of systemic treatment with anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMO) directed against miR-181a utilizing a nanopiece delivery platform (NPs). NPs were combined with a molecular beacon or anti–miR-181a oligonucleotides and are shown to transfect chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Intratumoral injection and systemic delivery had similar effects on miR-181a expression in nude mice bearing chondrosarcoma xenografts. Systemic delivery of NPs carrying anti–miR-181a also restored RGS16 expression, decreased expression of VEGF and MMP1, MMP activity, and tumor volume by 32% at day 38, and prolonged survival from 23% to 45%. In conclusion, these data support that systemic delivery of AMO shows promise for chondrosarcoma treatment.