Time-lapse images of spheroid formation. LnCAP cells were grown on a 1:1 mixture of sodium alginate and matrigel in ultra-low adhesion 96-well plates. Time-lapse images were acquired using a 10X objective on the Incucyte cell imager platform located in a humidified cell culture chamber. Scale bar = 1mm
ARTICLE ABSTRACTThe PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PAM) signaling pathway is frequently mutated in prostate cancer. Specific AKT inhibitors are now in advanced clinical trials, and this study investigates the effect of MK2206, a non–ATP-competitive inhibitor, on the cellular metabolism of prostate cancer cells. We observed a reduction in cell motility and aerobic glycolysis in prostate cancer cells with treatment. These changes were not accompanied by a reduction in the ratio of high-energy phosphates or a change in total protein levels of enzymes and transporters involved in glycolysis. However, a decreased ratio of NAD+/NADH was observed, motivating the use of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HP-MRS) to detect treatment response. Spectroscopic experiments were performed on tumor spheroids, 3D structures that self-organize in the presence of an extracellular matrix. Treated spheroids showed decreased lactate production with on-target inhibition confirmed using IHC, demonstrating that HP-MRS can be used to probe treatment response in prostate cancer spheroids and can provide a biomarker for treatment response. Mol Cancer Res; 16(3); 453–60. ©2018 AACR.