American Association for Cancer Research
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Figure S3 from High-Dimensional Analyses Reveal IL15 Enhances Activation of Sipuleucel-T Lymphocyte Subsets and Reverses Immunoresistance

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posted on 2024-05-02, 08:04 authored by Muhammad A. Saeed, Bo Peng, Kevin Kim, Kavita Rawat, Lindsey M. Kuehm, Zoe R. Siegel, Ariel Borkowski, Nabih Habib, Brian Van Tine, Nadeem Sheikh, Vu Tuyen, Daniel L.J. Thorek, Todd A. Fehniger, Russell K. Pachynski

IL-15 dose response in sipuleucel-T

Funding

Foundation for Barnes-Jewish Hospital (FBJH)

History

ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Sipuleucel-T (sip-T) is the only FDA-approved autologous cellular immunotherapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). To elucidate parameters of the response profile to this therapy, we report high-dimensional analyses of sip-T using cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF) and show a lymphoid predominance, with CD3+ T cells constituting the highest proportion (median ∼60%) of sip-T, followed by B cells, and natural killer (NK) and NKT cells. We hypothesized that treatment of sip-T with homeostatic cytokines known to activate/expand effector lymphocytes could augment efficacy against prostate tumors. Of the cytokines tested, IL15 was the most effective at enhancing activation and proliferation of effector lymphocytes, as well as augmenting tumor cytotoxicity in vitro. Co-culture of sip-T with IL15 and control or prostate-relevant antigens showed substantial activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells in an antigen-specific manner. Adoptive transfer of IL15-treated sip-T into NSG mice resulted in more potent prostate tumor growth inhibition compared with control sip-T. Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes revealed a 2- to 14-fold higher influx of sip-T and a significant increase in IFNγ producing CD8+ T cells and NKT cells within the tumor microenvironment in the IL15 group. In conclusion, we put forward evidence that IL15 treatment can enhance the functional antitumor immunity of sip-T, providing rationale for combining IL15 or IL15 agonists with sip-T to treat patients with mCRPC.