American Association for Cancer Research
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Figure S3 from Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Activation Is Associated with Increased cAMP/PKA Signaling in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

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posted on 2024-04-02, 07:22 authored by Lynda Bennett, Praveen Kumar Jaiswal, Ryan V. Harkless, Tiha M. Long, Ning Gao, Brianna Vandenburg, Phillip Selman, Ishrat Durdana, Ricardo R. Lastra, Donald Vander Griend, Remi Adelaiye-Ogala, Russell Z. Szmulewitz, Suzanne D. Conzen

Western blot of PKIB in LAPC4 and CWR-22Rv1 cells

Funding

Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT)

Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF)

National Cancer Institute (NCI)

United States Department of Health and Human Services

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DOD Prostate Cancer Research Program (PCRP)

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

In castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and ensuing transcriptional activity have been proposed as an oncogenic “bypass” mechanism in response to androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibition (ARSi). Here, we report that GR transcriptional activity acquired following ARSi is associated with the upregulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-associated gene expression pathways in both model systems and metastatic prostate cancer patient samples. In the context of ARSi, the expression of GR-mediated genes encoding cAMP signaling pathway-associated proteins can be inhibited by treatment with selective GR modulators (SGRMs). For example, in the context of ARSi, we found that GR activation resulted in upregulation of protein kinase inhibitor beta (PKIB) mRNA and protein levels, leading to nuclear accumulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA-c). Increased PKA-c, in turn, is associated with increased cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and activity. Furthermore, enzalutamide and SGRM combination therapy in mice bearing CRPC xenografts delayed CRPC progression compared with enzalutamide therapy alone, and reduced tumor PKIB mRNA expression. Supporting the clinical importance of GR/PKA signaling activation in CRPC, we found a significant enrichment of both cAMP pathway signaling-associated gene expression and high NR3C1 (GR) activity in patient-derived xenograft models and metastatic human CRPC samples. These findings suggest a novel mechanism linking CRPC-induced GR transcriptional activity with increased cAMP signaling in AR-antagonized CRPC. Furthermore, our findings suggest that GR-specific modulation in addition to AR antagonism may delay GR+ CRPC time to recurrence, at least in part, by inhibiting tumor cAMP/PKA pathways.