American Association for Cancer Research
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Figure S2 from Combined PPARγ Activation and XIAP Inhibition as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy for Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumors

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-04-03, 15:44 authored by Dilys T.H. Leung, Trang Nguyen, Edwina May Oliver, Juliana Matti, Maria Alexiadis, John Silke, Thomas W. Jobling, Peter J. Fuller, Simon Chu

Figure S2. Effects of PPARg activation.


Cancer Council Victoria

Ovarian Cancer Research Foundation

National Health & Medical Research Council of Australia



Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are characterized by indolent growth and late relapse. No therapeutic modalities aside from surgery have proven effective. We previously reported overexpression of the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), and constitutive activity of the NFκB and AP1 signaling pathways in GCT. PPARγ presents as a potential therapeutic target as it impedes proliferation and promotes terminal differentiation of granulosa cells. However, resistance to the actions of PPARγ is caused by NFκB transrepression in GCT-derived cell lines, KGN and COV434. We showed that abrogation of NFκB signaling in GCT cells enables PPARγ agonists to initiate apoptosis. In addition, we observed overexpression of an NFκB–induced gene, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), in GCT and GCT-derived cells. XIAP is an attractive therapeutic target due to its role in inhibiting the apoptotic pathway. We investigated the antitumor effects of combined XIAP inhibition using Smac-mimetics and PPARγ activation using thiazolidinediones (TZD) in the GCT-derived cells. Transactivation assays revealed that NFκB transrepression of PPARγ can be relieved by NFκB or XIAP inhibition. Combined Smac-mimetic and TZD significantly induced apoptosis, reduced cell viability and proliferation in KGN cells in monolayer and 3D spheroid culture, and in GCT explant models. The Smac-mimetic and TZD cotreatment also delayed cell invasion, upregulated proapoptotic genes, and compromised cell metabolism in KGN cells. This study provides evidence that PPARγ and XIAP cotreatment has antineoplastic effects in GCT. As therapeutics that target these proteins are already in clinical or preclinical use, expedient translation to the clinic is possible.