ARTICLE ABSTRACTGlioma is one of the most common primary malignant tumors of the central nervous system accounting for approximately 40% of all intracranial tumors. Temozolomide is a conventional chemotherapy drug for adjuvant treatment of patients with high-risk gliomas, including grade II to grade IV. Our bioinformatic analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas datasets and immunoblotting assay show that SLC12A2 gene and its encoded Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) protein are abundantly expressed in grade II–IV gliomas. NKCC1 regulates cell volume and intracellular Cl− concentration, which promotes glioma cell migration, resistance to temozolomide, and tumor-related epilepsy in experimental glioma models. Using mouse syngeneic glioma models with intracranial transplantation of two different glioma cell lines (GL26 and SB28), we show that NKCC1 protein in glioma tumor cells as well as in tumor-associated reactive astrocytes was significantly upregulated in response to temozolomide monotherapy. Combination therapy of temozolomide with the potent NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide reduced tumor proliferation, potentiated the cytotoxic effects of temozolomide, decreased tumor-associated reactive astrogliosis, and restored astrocytic GLT-1 and GLAST glutamate transporter expression. The combinatorial therapy also led to suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of mice bearing GL26 glioma cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NKCC1 protein plays multifaceted roles in the pathogenesis of glioma tumors and presents as a therapeutic target for reducing temozolomide-mediated resistance and tumor-associated astrogliosis.