American Association for Cancer Research
10780432ccr171090-sup-182000_3_supp_4320223_hxzhh3.pdf (1.67 MB)

Figure S1 from KRAS Mutation and Consensus Molecular Subtypes 2 and 3 Are Independently Associated with Reduced Immune Infiltration and Reactivity in Colorectal Cancer

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-31, 19:23 authored by Neeraj Lal, Brian S. White, Ghaleb Goussous, Oliver Pickles, Mike J. Mason, Andrew D. Beggs, Philippe Taniere, Benjamin E. Willcox, Justin Guinney, Gary W. Middleton

Immunohistochemistry algorithms.


Christopher Bagnall, the University of Birmingham's Digital Pathology Unit

Human Biomaterials Resource Centre

Wellcome Trust investigator award

Wellcome Trust

Cancer Research UK

Medical Research Council



Purpose: KRAS mutation is a common canonical mutation in colorectal cancer, found at differing frequencies in all consensus molecular subtypes (CMS). The independent immunobiological impacts of RAS mutation and CMS are unknown. Thus, we explored the immunobiological effects of KRAS mutation across the CMS spectrum.Experimental Design: Expression analysis of immune genes/signatures was performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-seq and the KFSYSCC microarray datasets. Multivariate analysis included KRAS status, CMS, tumor location, MSI status, and neoantigen load. Protein expression of STAT1, HLA-class II, and CXCL10 was analyzed by digital IHC.Results: The Th1-centric co-ordinate immune response cluster (CIRC) was significantly, albeit modestly, reduced in KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer in both datasets. Cytotoxic T cells, neutrophils, and the IFNγ pathway were suppressed in KRAS-mutant samples. The expressions of STAT1 and CXCL10 were reduced at the mRNA and protein levels. In multivariate analysis, KRAS mutation, CMS2, and CMS3 were independently predictive of reduced CIRC expression. Immune response was heterogeneous across KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer: KRAS-mutant CMS2 samples have the lowest CIRC expression, reduced expression of the IFNγ pathway, STAT1 and CXCL10, and reduced infiltration of cytotoxic cells and neutrophils relative to CMS1 and CMS4 and to KRAS wild-type CMS2 samples in the TCGA. These trends held in the KFSYSCC dataset.Conclusions: KRAS mutation is associated with suppressed Th1/cytotoxic immunity in colorectal cancer, the extent of the effect being modulated by CMS subtype. These results add a novel immunobiological dimension to the biological heterogeneity of colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 224–33. ©2017 AACR.

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