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Figure S12 from Hypoxia-Induced Neuronal Activity in Glioma Patients Polarizes Microglia by Potentiating RNA m6A Demethylation

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posted on 2024-03-15, 07:21 authored by Xiaofan Guo, Wei Qiu, Boyan Li, Yanhua Qi, Shaobo Wang, Rongrong Zhao, Bo Cheng, Xiao Han, Hao Du, Ziwen Pan, Shulin Zhao, Jiawei Qiu, Gang Li, Hao Xue

Figure S12. DUSP9 knockdown promotes the microglia M2 polarization.

Funding

Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities)

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)

Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (山东省自然科学基金)

Jinan Science and Technology Bureau (Jinan Science & Technology Bureau)

Taishan Pandeng Scholar Program of Shandong Province

Taishan Scholar Program of Shandong Province

Science and Technology Innovation Major Project, Ministry of Science and Technology of China

History

ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Neuronal activity in the brain has been reported to promote the malignant progression of glioma cells via nonsynaptic paracrine and electrical synaptic integration mechanisms. However, the interaction between neuronal activity and the immune microenvironment in glioblastoma (GBM) remains largely unclear. By applying chemogenetic techniques, we enhanced and inhibited neuronal activity in vitro and in a mouse model to study how neuronal activity regulates microglial polarization and affects GBM progression. We demonstrate that hypoxia drove glioma stem cells (GSC) to produce higher levels of glutamate, which activated local neurons. Neuronal activity promoted GBM progression by facilitating microglial M2 polarization through enriching miR-200c-3p in neuron-derived exosomes, which decreased the expression of the m6A writer zinc finger CCCH-type containing 13 (ZC3H13) in microglia, impairing methylation of dual specificity phosphatase 9 (DUSP9) mRNA. Downregulation of DUSP9 promoted ERK pathway activation, which subsequently induced microglial M2 polarization. In the mouse model, cortical neuronal activation promoted microglial M2 polarization whereas cortical neuronal inhibition decreased microglial M2 polarization in GBM xenografts. miR-200c-3p knockdown in cortical neurons impaired microglial M2 polarization and GBM xenograft growth, even when cortical neurons were activated. Treatment with the anti-seizure medication levetiracetam impaired neuronal activation and subsequently reduced neuron-mediated microglial M2 polarization. These findings indicated that hypoxic GSC-induced neuron activation promotes GBM progression by polarizing microglia via the exosomal miR-200c-3p/ZC3H13/DUSP9/p-ERK pathway. Levetiracetam, an antiepileptic drug, blocks the abnormal activation of neurons in GBM and impairs activity-dependent GBM progression.See related commentary by Cui et al., p. 1073

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