American Association for Cancer Research
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supplemental figure 1 from Phase I/II Study of Metastatic Melanoma Patients Treated with Nivolumab Who Had Progressed after Ipilimumab

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posted on 2023-04-03, 23:05 authored by Jeffrey Weber, Geoffrey Gibney, Ragini Kudchadkar, Bin Yu, Pingyan Cheng, Alberto J. Martinez, Jodie Kroeger, Allison Richards, Lori McCormick, Valerie Moberg, Heather Cronin, Xiuhua Zhao, Michael Schell, Yian Ann Chen

Gating Strategy for MDSC


National Cancer Institute



The checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab is active in patients with metastatic melanoma who have failed ipilimumab. In this phase I/II study, we assessed nivolumab's safety in 92 ipilimumab-refractory patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma, including those who experienced grade 3–4 drug-related toxicity to ipilimumab. We report long-term survival, response duration, and biomarkers in these patients after nivolumab treatment (3 mg/kg) every 2 weeks for 24 weeks, then every 12 weeks for up to 2 years, with or without a multipeptide vaccine. The response rate for ipilimumab-refractory patients was 30% (95% CI, 21%–41%). The median duration of response was 14.6 months, median progression-free survival was 5.3 months, and median overall survival was 20.6 months, when patients were followed up for a median of 16 months. One- and 2-year survival rates were 68.4% and 31.2%, respectively. Ipilimumab-naïve and ipilimumab-refractory patients showed no significant difference in survival. The 21 patients with prior grade 3–4 toxicity to ipilimumab that was managed with steroids tolerated nivolumab well, with 62% (95% CI, 38%–82%) having complete or partial responses or stabilized disease at 24 weeks. High numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were associated with poor survival. Thus, survival and long-term safety were excellent in ipilimumab-refractory patients treated with nivolumab. Prior grade 3–4 immune-related adverse effects from ipilimumab were not indicative of nivolumab toxicities, and patients had a high overall rate of remission or stability at 24 weeks. Prospectively evaluating MDSC numbers before treatment could help assess the expected benefit of nivolumab. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(4); 345–53. ©2016 AACR.

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