American Association for Cancer Research
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00085472can150927-sup-147851_2_supp_3815764_ljj4qd.pptx (1.78 MB)

Supplementary Figures S1-S6 from Interactions between Adipocytes and Breast Cancer Cells Stimulate Cytokine Production and Drive Src/Sox2/miR-302b–Mediated Malignant Progression

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posted on 2023-03-30, 23:42 authored by Manuel Picon-Ruiz, Chendong Pan, Katherine Drews-Elger, Kibeom Jang, Alexandra H. Besser, Dekuang Zhao, Cynthia Morata-Tarifa, Minsoon Kim, Tan A. Ince, Diana J. Azzam, Seth A. Wander, Bin Wang, Burcu Ergonul, Ram H. Datar, Richard J. Cote, Guy A. Howard, Dorraya El-Ashry, Pablo Torné-Poyatos, Juan A. Marchal, Joyce M. Slingerland

hASC characterization (S1); Co-culture of immature adipocytes with mammary epithelial cells increases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (S2); Immature adipocyte or cytokine exposure increases abundance of sphere and colony forming cells without changing global cell proliferation (S3); Immature adipocyte or cytokine exposure increases matrigel invasion in vitro and tumor formation, vasculogenesis and metastasis in vivo (S4); Src mediates cytokine effects via ES-TF upregulation affecting soft agar colony growth but not cell cycle progression (S5); Cytokine-mediated increase in sphere formation is Sox2-dependent and miR302b upregulation drives further c-MYC and SOX2 gene expression (S6).

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Consequences of the obesity epidemic on cancer morbidity and mortality are not fully appreciated. Obesity is a risk factor for many cancers, but the mechanisms by which it contributes to cancer development and patient outcome have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of coculturing human-derived adipocytes with established and primary breast cancer cells on tumorigenic potential. We found that the interaction between adipocytes and cancer cells increased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Prolonged culture of cancer cells with adipocytes or cytokines increased the proportion of mammosphere-forming cells and of cells expressing stem-like markers in vitro. Furthermore, contact with immature adipocytes increased the abundance of cancer cells with tumor-forming and metastatic potential in vivo. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that cancer cells cultured with immature adipocytes or cytokines activated Src, thus promoting Sox2, c-Myc, and Nanog upregulation. Moreover, Sox2-dependent induction of miR-302b further stimulated cMYC and SOX2 expression and potentiated the cytokine-induced cancer stem cell–like properties. Finally, we found that Src inhibitors decreased cytokine production after coculture, indicating that Src is not only activated by adipocyte or cytokine exposures, but is also required to sustain cytokine induction. These data support a model in which cancer cell invasion into local fat would establish feed-forward loops to activate Src, maintain proinflammatory cytokine production, and increase tumor-initiating cell abundance and metastatic progression. Collectively, our findings reveal new insights underlying increased breast cancer mortality in obese individuals and provide a novel preclinical rationale to test the efficacy of Src inhibitors for breast cancer treatment. Cancer Res; 76(2); 491–504. ©2016 AACR.