American Association for Cancer Research
00085472can200285-sup-236277_2_supp_6445834_qw8tg6.pptx (35.56 MB)

Supplementary Figures S1-11 from A DNA Hypomethylating Drug Alters the Tumor Microenvironment and Improves the Effectiveness of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in a Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer

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posted on 2023-03-31, 03:43 authored by Tamas A. Gonda, Jarwei Fang, Martha Salas, Catherine Do, Emily Hsu, Anna Zhukovskaya, Ariel Siegel, Ryota Takahashi, Zoila A. Lopez-Bujanda, Charles G. Drake, Gulam A. Manji, Timothy C. Wang, Kenneth P. Olive, Benjamin Tycko

Supplementary figures S1-S11





Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal cancer that has proven refractory to immunotherapy. Previously, treatment with the DNA hypomethylating drug decitabine (5-aza-dC; DAC) extended survival in the KPC-Brca1 mouse model of PDAC. Here we investigated the effects of DAC in the original KPC model and tested combination therapy with DAC followed by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Four protocols were tested: PBS vehicle, DAC, ICI (anti-PD-1 or anti-VISTA), and DAC followed by ICI. For each single-agent and combination treatment, tumor growth was measured by serial ultrasound, tumor-infiltrating lymphoid and myeloid cells were characterized, and overall survival was assessed. Single-agent DAC led to increased CD4+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), PD1 expression, and tumor necrosis while slowing tumor growth and modestly increasing mouse survival without systemic toxicity. RNA-sequencing of DAC-treated tumors revealed increased expression of Chi3l3 (Ym1), reflecting an increase in a subset of tumor-infiltrating M2-polarized macrophages. While ICI alone had modest effects, DAC followed by either of ICI therapies additively inhibited tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival. The best results were obtained using DAC followed by anti-PD-1, which extended mean survival from 26 to 54 days (P < 0.0001). In summary, low-dose DAC inhibits tumor growth and increases both TILs and a subset of tumor-infiltrating M2-polarized macrophages in the KPC model of PDAC, and DAC followed by anti-PD-1 substantially prolongs survival. Because M2-polarized macrophages are predicted to antagonize antitumor effects, targeting these cells may be important to enhance the efficacy of combination therapy with DAC plus ICI. In a pancreatic cancer model, a DNA hypomethylating drug increases tumor-infiltrating effector T cells, increases a subset of M2 macrophages, and significantly prolongs survival in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors.See related commentary by Nephew, p. 4610

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