Supplementary Figure from Updated Efficacy Outcomes of Anti-PD-1 Antibodies plus Multikinase Inhibitors for Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer with or without Liver Metastases in Clinical Trials
ARTICLE ABSTRACTWe previously reported preliminary activity of regorafenib plus nivolumab (REGONIVO) or lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab (LENPEM) in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Meanwhile, several studies demonstrated liver metastases are less responsive to immunotherapy.
Combined efficacy outcomes with a longer follow-up in a phase Ib trial of REGONIVO and a phase II trial of LENPEM were examined in AGC with or without liver metastases (REGONIVO plus LENPEM cohort). We also investigated the efficacy of anti-PD-1 monotherapies (anti-PD-1 monotherapy cohort). A comparison of the immune microenvironment between gastric primary tumors and liver metastases was also conducted by multiplex IHC.
In the REGONIVO plus LENPEM cohort, with a median follow-up of 14.0 months, objective response rate (ORR), median progression-free survival (mPFS), and median overall survival (mOS) were 46%, 7.8 months, and 15.6 months in patients with liver metastases, while 69%, 6.9 months, and 15.5 months in those without. In the anti-PD-1 monotherapy cohort, with a median follow-up of 27.6 months, ORR, mPFS, and mOS were 9%, 1.4 months, and 6.4 months in patients with liver metastases, while 22%, 2.3 months, and 9.0 months in those without. Multiplex IHC revealed liver metastases were associated with an abundance of immune-suppressive cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages and regulatory T cells, with fewer CD8+ T cells compared with gastric primary tumors.
Anti-PD-1 antibodies plus regorafenib or lenvatinib for AGC showed promising antitumor activity with a longer follow-up, irrespective of liver metastases status, despite a more immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment in liver metastases.