American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure from Activation of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway Produces Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Damage in Hepatocytes That Contribute to Liver Tumorigenesis

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posted on 2023-04-03, 19:45 authored by Hayato Hikita, Takahiro Kodama, Satoshi Tanaka, Yoshinobu Saito, Yasutoshi Nozaki, Tasuku Nakabori, Satoshi Shimizu, Yoshito Hayashi, Wei Li, Minoru Shigekawa, Ryotaro Sakamori, Takuya Miyagi, Naoki Hiramatsu, Tomohide Tatsumi, Tetsuo Takehara

Supplementary Figure 3. Deep sequencing of almost all coding lesions of p53 and beta-catenin.



Chronic hepatitis, including viral hepatitis and steatihepatitis, is a well-known high-risk condition for hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously reported that continuous hepatocyte apoptosis drives liver tumors in hepatocyte-specific Bcl-xL or Mcl-1 knockout mice. In this study, we further examine the underlying cellular mechanisms of generating tumors in apoptosis-prone liver. In cultured hepatocytes, the administration of ABT-737, a Bcl-xL/-2/-w inhibitor, led to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as activation of caspases. Mitochondria isolated from murine liver, upon administration of truncated-Bid, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, released cytochrome c and produced ROS, which was dependent on mitochondrial respiration. Hepatic apoptosis, regeneration, accumulation of oxidative damages, and tumorigenesis observed in hepatocyte-specific Mcl-1 knockout mice were substantially attenuated by further deficiency of Bax or Bid, suggesting that a balance of mitochondrial Bcl-2 family proteins governs generation of oxidative stress and other pathologies. Whole-exome sequencing clarified that C>A/G>T transversion, which is often caused by oxidative DNA damage in proliferating cells, was a frequently observed mutation pattern in liver tumors of Mcl-1 knockout mice. The administration of antioxidant L-N-acetylcysteine did not affect apoptosis, compensatory regeneration, or fibrotic responses but significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage and incidence and multiplicity of live tumors in Mcl-1 knockout mice. In conclusion, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in hepatocytes accumulates intracellular oxidative damages, leading to liver tumorigenesis, independently of liver regeneration or fibrosis. This study supports a concept that antioxidant therapy may be useful for suppressing liver carcinogenesis in patients with chronic liver disease. Cancer Prev Res; 8(8); 693–701. ©2015 AACR.

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