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Supplementary Figure S1 from Tobacco Smoke Is a Major Source of Aromatic Amine Exposure in U.S. Adults: 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

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posted on 2023-05-17, 13:40 authored by Tiffany Seyler, Shrila Mazumder, Rayaj Ahamed, Wanzhe Zhu, Benjamin C. Blount, Benjamin J. Apelberg, Lanqing Wang

Supplementary Figure S1. Chemical structures of five AAs. Analytes that were monitored for isomeric separation but not quantified are indicated with an asterisk.

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoking increases the risk of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and premature death. Aromatic amines (AA) are found in cigarette smoke and are well-established human bladder carcinogens. We measured and compared total urinary levels of 1-aminonaphthalene (1AMN), 2-aminonaphthalene (2AMN), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4ABP) in adults who smoked cigarettes exclusively and in adult nonusers of tobacco products from a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized U.S. population in the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sample-weighted geometric mean concentrations of AAs in adults who smoked cigarettes exclusively compared with adult nonusers were 30 times higher for 1AMN and 4 to 6 times higher for 2AMN and 4ABP. We evaluated the association of tobacco-smoke exposure with urinary AAs using sample-weighted multiple linear regression models to control for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diet, and urinary creatinine. Secondhand smoke exposure status was categorized using serum cotinine (SCOT) among adult nonusers (SCOT ≤ 10 ng/mL). The exposure for adults who smoked cigarettes exclusively (SCOT > 10 ng/mL) was categorized on the basis of the average number of self-reported cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in the five days prior to urine collection. The regression models show AAs concentration increased with increasing CPD (P < 0.001). Dietary-intake variables derived from the 24-hours recall questionnaire were not consistently significant predictors of urinary AAs. This is the first characterized total urinary AA concentrations of the U.S. adult non-institutionalized population. Our analyses show that smoking status is a major contributor to AA exposures. These data provide a crucial baseline for exposure to three AAs in U.S. non-institutionalized adults.

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    Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

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