American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure 5 from Unique and Novel Urinary Metabolomic Features in Malignant versus Benign Adrenal Neoplasms

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posted on 2023-03-31, 20:07 authored by Dhaval Patel, Matthew D. Thompson, Soumen K. Manna, Kristopher W. Krausz, Lisa Zhang, Naris Nilubol, Frank J. Gonzalez, Electron Kebebew

Comparison between patients with ACC and benign adrenal disease with respect to the four unknown features that were validated: (A) m/z 334.186, (B) m/z 306.153, (C) m/z 209.030, and (D) m/z 427.231.


Center for Cancer Research





Purpose: Adrenal incidentalomas must be differentiated from adrenocortical cancer (ACC). Currently, size, growth, and imaging characteristics determine the potential for malignancy but are imperfect. The aim was to evaluate whether urinary small molecules (<800 Da) are associated with ACC.Experimental Design: Preoperative fasting urine specimens from patients with ACC (n = 19) and benign adrenal tumors (n = 46) were analyzed by unbiased ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Creatinine-normalized features were analyzed by Progenesis, SIMCA, and unpaired t test adjusted by FDR. Features with an AUC >0.8 were identified through fragmentation patterns and database searches. All lead features were assessed in an independent set from patients with ACC (n = 11) and benign adrenal tumors (n = 46) and in a subset of tissue samples from patients with ACC (n = 15) and benign adrenal tumors (n = 15) in the training set.Results: Sixty-nine features were discovered and four known metabolites identified. Urinary creatine riboside was elevated 2.1-fold (P = 0.0001) in patients with ACC. L-tryptophan, Nϵ,Nϵ,Nϵ-trimethyl-L-lysine, and 3-methylhistidine were lower 0.33-fold (P < 0.0001), 0.56-fold (P < 0.0001), and 0.33-fold (P = 0.0003) in patients with ACC, respectively. Combined multivariate analysis of the four biomarkers showed an AUC of 0.89 [sensitivity 94.7% (confidence interval {CI}, 73.9%–99.1%), specificity 82.6% (CI, 68.6%–92.2%), PPV 69.2% (CI, 48.2%–85.6%), and NPV 97.4% (CI, 86.5%–99.6%)] for distinguishing ACC from benign tumors. Of the four, creatine riboside and four unknown features were validated. Creatine riboside, Nϵ,Nϵ,Nϵ-trimethyl-L-lysine, and two unknown features were elevated in ACC tumors.Conclusions: There are unique urinary metabolic features in patients with ACC with some metabolites present in patient tumor samples. Urinary creatine riboside can differentiate benign adrenal neoplasms from ACC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(17); 5302–10. ©2017 AACR.

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