ARTICLE ABSTRACTSurvivors from sepsis are in an immunosuppressed state that is associated with higher long-term mortality and risk of opportunistic infections. Whether these factors contribute to neoplastic proliferation, however, remains unclear. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) can support malignant cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. We addressed the relationship between the post-sepsis state, tumor progression and TAM accumulation, and phenotypic and genetic profile, using a mouse model of sepsis resolution and then B16 melanoma in mice. In addition, we measured the serum concentrations of TNFα, TGFβ, CCL2, and CXCL12 and determined the effect of in vivo CXCR4/CXCL12 inhibition in this context. Mice that survived sepsis showed increased tumor progression both in the short and long term, and survival times were shorter. TAM accumulation, TAM local proliferation, and serum concentrations of TGFβ, CXCL12, and TNFα were increased. Naïve mice inoculated with B16 together with macrophages from post-sepsis mice also had faster tumor progression and shorter survival. Post-sepsis TAMs had less expression of MHC-II and leukocyte activation-related genes. Inhibition of CXCR4/CXCL12 prevented the post-sepsis–induced tumor progression, TAM accumulation, and TAM in situ proliferation. Collectively, our data show that the post-sepsis state was associated with TAM accumulation through CXCR4/CXCL12, which contributed to B16 melanoma progression. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(4); 312–22. ©2016 AACR.