Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme (EME)
NIHR Senior Investigator grant
Cancer Research UK (CRUK)
European Union-BBSRC (UK)
ARTICLE ABSTRACTAspirin and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduce colorectal adenomatous polyp risk and affect synthesis of oxylipins including prostaglandin E2. We investigated whether 35 SNPs in oxylipin metabolism genes such as cyclooxygenase (PTGS) and lipoxygenase (ALOX), as well as 7 SNPs already associated with colorectal cancer risk reduction by aspirin (e.g., TP53; rs104522), modified the effects of aspirin and EPA on colorectal polyp recurrence in the randomized 2 × 2 factorial seAFOod trial. Treatment effects were reported as the incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by stratifying negative binomial and Poisson regression analyses of colorectal polyp risk on SNP genotype. Statistical significance was reported with adjustment for the false discovery rate as the P and q value. 542 (of 707) trial participants had both genotype and colonoscopy outcome data. Reduction in colorectal polyp risk in aspirin users compared with nonaspirin users was restricted to rs4837960 (PTGS1) common homozygotes [IRR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53–0.90); q = 0.06], rs2745557 (PTGS2) compound heterozygote-rare homozygotes [IRR, 0.60 (0.41–0.88); q = 0.06], rs7090328 (ALOX5) rare homozygotes [IRR 0.27 (0.11–0.64); q = 0.05], rs2073438 (ALOX12) common homozygotes [IRR, 0.57 (0.41–0.80); q = 0.05], and rs104522 (TP53) rare homozygotes [IRR, 0.37 (0.17–0.79); q = 0.06]. No modification of colorectal polyp risk in EPA users was observed. In conclusion, genetic variants relevant to the proposed mechanism of action on oxylipins are associated with differential colorectal polyp risk reduction by aspirin in individuals who develop multiple colorectal polyps. SNP genotypes should be considered during development of personalized, predictive models of colorectal cancer chemoprevention by aspirin.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes controlling lipid mediator signaling may modify the colorectal polyp prevention activity of aspirin. Further investigation is required to determine whether testing for genetic variants can be used to target cancer chemoprevention by aspirin to those who will benefit most.